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He also did something very different which was the painting of Mona Lisa, a woman without any jewelry or wedding ring, yet looking elegant and peaceful. Leonardo fame as an artist based on only a few pieces of art. What made him take the most chances was that he was less concerned with literature and strict traditions in art. He rather revolutionized art by making math, engineering, and geometric concepts ingrained concepts within his work. 2. What was the debate between painting and sculpture during the High Italian Renaissance? The debate was whether or not painting and sculpture were liberal arts or not.

Aristocrats and people more high up in society argued that painters and sculptors needed to be educated in the classics and mathematics before constructing pieces. In contrast, a majority of people thought that an artist could express emotions and important ideas of the time through painting sculpture and architecture just as equally as a poet with writing, without an educated background. Furthermore, the use of nudity was popular among both painting and sculptures. Sculptures were always left unpainted because many felt as if the purity of the white marble would be diminished by paint. 3.

Why did Raphael change his painting style? Moving from Florence to Rome, Raphael changed his painting style under the pope Julius the II. At this time, Raphael would paint Religion, the Law, Poetry, and Philosophy, otherwise known as the 4 branches of knowledge. Overall, Raphael become known for the idealization in his work. He specialized in balanced composition, warm colors, and ideally proportions. Similar to Dad Vinci, both could use very accurate proportions because of their experience with geometric concepts. Additionally, he like many other artists of the time, liked to use triangular composition. 4.

What are some general features of painting in the High Italian Renaissance? The peak of classicism was achieved in the High Renaissance (led by Rome). The use of tempura allowed for a more malleTABLE oil medium in painting. Artists depended less on patron families and from other sources such as donations. More middle class families rallied various pieces from great artists. More secular works were also seen as Christian patrons were not the only customers. Dad Vinci brought about the painting method of “suffuse”, in which he rendered forms in a subtly soft way to create a misty effect across the painted surface.

Artist also used the technique of Chiaroscuro in order to provide soft transitions between light and dark. Glazes were used in order to increase the richness in oil painting. Also, many portraits began to display three quarter view. 5. What is the arrangement of images on the Sistine Chapel Ceiling and why are the scenes ordered in that way? The images in the Sistine Chapel are arranged in which the narrative begins over the altar and ends near the chapel entrance. Moreover, God’s earliest actions of creation are placed closest to the altar, then the creation of eve, followed by the Temptation, the

Fall, the Expulsion from Paradise and God’s eventual destruction of all people except Noah and his family by the flood. The triangular spandrels contain paintings of the ancestors of Jesus–each of which are flanked by mirror- image Indies in seating and lying down positions. Running around ceiling of the chapel is a cornice that is supported by pillars decorated with putt ( meaning plump naked little boy? ). Set within this frame is figures from the old testament, prophets and sibyls. Seated on the fictive cornice are heroic figures of nude young women called signed.

Rising from the signed, shallow bands of stone which divide into compartments in which the scenes of The Fall and The Flood are painted. 6. Why is Michelangelo David so well regarded and revered? Michelangelo David was very well regarded and well revered by the people of Florence because it stood as a symbol of Florence and the Republican Government Florence was under political and military pressure from Milan, Sienna, and Pisa and the Statue Of David served as a reminder Of the power Of divine intervention over strength and size.

It was also liked because it was insistent of the Greek Classical style of sculpture, especially from the Hellenic period. The sculpture shows muscular athleticism as well as deep contemplation and mental preparation in Davit’s expression. 7. How was SST. Pewter’s Basilica modified during the sixteenth century? In 1506 Pope Julius II demolished Saint Pewter’s Basilica, which was falling apart, in order to create a new Basilica on the same holy ground. The original architect was Aberrant who designed the building as central plan church with a Greek cross design.

It would be topped of with an enormous dome to symbolize the perfection of God. However he died 5 years later and the new Basilica was not built until Michelangelo took over in 1546. He simplified Brakeman’s plan allowing the building to be one undivided space in order to better accommodate the crowds. 8. What qualities or features typify Venetian Renaissance painting? During the 16th Century, Venetians saw themselves as superior to Rome and Florence because it served as a massive trade port on the Mediterranean. The Venetians were the first people to paint on both wood panels and canvas with oil painting.

They were also the first people to use large pieces of canvas for nettings rather than making Frescoes. The long time it takes oil paints to dry allowed Venetians to be very detailed in their paintings. The Venetians used the idealized style of painting that had taken hold in the Late 15th Century because of the Beeline family throughout the 16th Century. Venetian artists use a lot of gem tones in their paintings such as Titian in Pesaro Madonna. 9. What role did the Jesuits play in patronizing Roman artists or architects? The Jesuits were a religious group dedicated to piety, education, and missionary work who led the Counter-reformation.

They spread their religion worldwide throughout the 16th Century and used art not only to teach but also as propaganda and to spread their religion. In reaction to this, the pope commissioned more art and buildings to be created in order to strengthen the Catholic Church by retaining a large following. 10. Why is Bronzer’s Allegory with Venus and Cupid typical of Mannerism? Bronzer’s Allegory with Venus and Cupid is a perfect example of Mannerism. The painting itself has many individual figures who look life like and are very well executed in a similar style to other paintings of the time.

The figures have clear symbolism representing characters from Greek Mythology however when all of the individual parts are put together the picture is very hard to comprehend. For example Cupid stands kissing Venus and squeezing her nipple in the foreground while a serpent with lion’s legs lurks behind them and Venus’ dove seems to support Cupid’s foot. 1 1 . What makes Tinderbox’s painting typical of Mannerism? In Tinderbox’s painting he often used elegant figures as seen in his version of The Last Supper. He also manipulated accepted formal conventions, like having one eight source and linear perspective.

He often had two light sources, and changed the perspective. He also used unusual colors and juxtaposition, also seen in The Last Supper, where there is a stark contrast of light and dark. He creates an intense mood of spirituality in The Last Supper through his Mannerist methods. 12. In what ways did women figure into the sixteenth-century art in Italy? Some wealthy women were patrons. The depiction of women in art was also very common, especially their nude forms. Other women, like Tinderbox’s daughter, were trained by their fathers.

In Tinderbox’s daughter’s case, she was trained so well, art historians are unTABLE to distinguish between her work and her father’s. Women were not formally trained as apprentices during this time period. 13. How did Julius II support and complicate Michelangelo artistic life? Julius supported Michelangelo artistic life by paying him well for his work. He helped to make Michelangelo more widely known, and commissioned him to do the Sistine Chapel. This complicated Michelangelo artistic life because he considered himself to be a sculptor, while Julius II was commissioning him to aunt the Sistine Chapel. 4. For what reasons did Michelangelo art change? Michelangelo art changed because of the changes in Italy during this time, as well as his changing mental state. In 1 534, a new Duke came to power in Florence and scared Michelangelo into returning to Rome. His mental state started to change towards the end of his life. Some reported that he would go between a state of depression into a state of frenzied activity. He became less involved with the ideas of human perfection and Renaissance idealism, and became more interested in uncovering new forms.


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